Book: Biology of Stress In Fish – Fish Physiology (Chapter 12 – Stress Management And Welfare)

Book: Biology of Stress In Fish – Fish Physiology (Chapter 12 – Stress Management And Welfare)

Lynne U Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Jack S Thomson
Biology of Stress in Fish – Fish Physiology, pp.463-539

The Chapter 12 authors have posted their work on Research Gate here:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309613409_Stress_Management_and_Welfare

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-802728-8.00012-6 (Science Direct)

There is not only a lack of familiarity with what constitutes stress and what side-effects stress can have, but there’s even a pretty fair amount of denial of it’s role in health and sickness.  All of that is laid fairly to rest in this book.

For example from this chapter, we can learn:

  • Short term (acute) stress – like being caught in a net – isn’t so bad for a fish.  It’s just a coping mechanism and long term consequences would not be expected.
  • Long term (chronic) stress – like three months in QT with a pack of strange fish – will have a more lasting negative impact on growth, immunity and reproduction.

In spite of how much of the book is online, they don’t allow quoting from any of it from any source I’ve found, so you can read the rest for yourself!

https://books.google.com/books?id=KcEOCAAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&dq=biology%20of%20stress%20in%20fish&pg=PP1&output=embed

Life without a cell membrane: Challenging the specificity of bacterial endophytes within Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta)

Life without a cell membrane: Challenging the specificity of bacterial endophytes within Bryopsis (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta)

BMC Microbiology 2011 11:255

DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-255

Once again a link about the pest algae Bryopsis.

This algae tends to plague many unstable reef aquariums.

After someone treating a fungal infection in fish coincidentally noticed Bryopsis die-off in their tank, folks have been using fluconazole to treat Bryopsis.  Thanks to its use of ergosterols in its cell membranes, it is obviously susceptible.

Nobody I asked could tell me where it started or how it worked, so I began doing research once I heard of the treatment.  This article is one that was still waiting in my browser for me to read.  Once I did, my jaw dropped upon reading this quote:

Bryopsis is a marine siphonous macroalga composed of a single, tubular shaped cell which contains multiple nuclei and chloroplasts in a thin cytoplasmic layer surrounding a large central vacuole [9]. While an organism composed of a giant, single cell would be prone to damage, siphonous macroalgae possess an intricate defense network that operates at various levels [710]. In Bryopsis, for example, the metabolite kahalalide F, which shows in vitro therapeutic activities, protects the alga from fish predation [11]. Even if damage does occur, a complex, multistep wound response is triggered [1012] to which Bryopsis algae add a surprisingly feature, i.e. the formation of protoplasts [13]. These protoplasts are membraneless structures that can survive in seawater for 10-20 minutes. Subsequently, membranes and a cell wall are synthesized de novo surrounding each protoplast, which then develop into new Bryopsis plants. “

STEROL AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF A MARINE ALGA BRYOPSIS PENNATA (BRYOPSIDOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA)

STEROL AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF A MARINE ALGA BRYOPSIS PENNATA (BRYOPSIDOPHYCEAE, CHLOROPHYTA)

Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 7(1): 73-82, January, 1994

This is a major pest algae in home salt water aquaria.

Folks have been using fluconazole to treat it.  Apparently the theory is that it’s acting in some way to block ergosterols from use or production, etc.

This article actually ID’s a few green algae with Egosterol contents, which is apparenltly more common in fungi:

Four sterols were isolated from the methanolic extract of Bryopsis pennata. One of them with cholesta skeleton was found as major constituent (78.12%), while three others with ergosta skeleton were present in traces (5-9%, Table 1). Ergosterol has been detected in Chlorella candida and C. nocturna, ergost-7-enol in C. ellipsoidea and C. saccharophila and ergost-5-enol in C. ernersonii and C. fusca (Patterson, 1971). Chlorella ellipsoidea also accumulates 5α-ergosta-8, 14-dien-3β-ol in the presence of a sterol inhibitor (Dickson et al, 1972). A variety of sterols with ergosta skeleton are found in green algae.

 

The Fish Guide


What Is In This Guide?
  • Understanding Stress In Fish
  • Understanding Fish Immunity and Resistance
  • Understanding Common Treatments
  • Understanding General Fish Keeping Issues
  • Understanding Microscope Use

eusthenopteron_foordi_guide_to_the_gallery_of_fishes
By Lankester, E. Ray (Edwin Ray); Ridewood, Walter George. [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
A lot of this will be from the U. of Florida IFAS Extension – a great resource!
Read this first:

Understanding Stress In Fish
(Read this second!)

Understanding Fish Immunity and Resistance


Understanding Common Treatments

  • Use of Antibiotics in Ornamental Fish Aquaculture
    “Before antibiotics are even considered, sources of stress such as poor water quality (including drastic temperature change), nutrition, genetics, and handling or transport must be removed or reduced.”

Understanding General Issues

Understanding Microscope Use