Long-term effects of nutrient and CO2 enrichment on the temperate coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786)

Long-term effects of nutrient and CO2 enrichment on the temperate coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786)

JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MARINE BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY, APRIL 2010

DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2010.02.007

PDF Available

Nutrient limited corals are unable to utilize an increase in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as nutrients are already limiting growth, thus the effect of elevated CO2 on saturation state drives the calcification response. Under nutrient replete conditions, corals may have the ability to utilize more DIC, thus the calcification response to CO2 becomes the product of a negative effect on saturation state and a positive effect on gross carbon fixation, depending upon which dominates, the calcification response can be either positive or negative.

Role of elevated organic carbon levels and microbial activity in coral mortality

Role of elevated organic carbon levels and microbial activity in coral mortality

David I. Kline, Neilan M. Kuntz, Mya Breitbart, Nancy Knowlton, Forest Rohwer

Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 314 (May 22 2006), pp. 119-125

Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/24870119

PDF available

Here we experimentally show that routinely measured components of water quality (nitrate, phosphate, ammonia) do not cause substantial coral mortality. In contrast, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is rarely measured on reefs, does.

‘Nuff said!

But the whole article is available, so as usual – click through and read it!

Biological control of aragonite formation in stony corals

Biological control of aragonite formation in stony corals

Stanislas Von Euw1, Qihong Zhang, Viacheslav Manichev, Nagarajan Murali, Juliane Gross, Leonard C. Feldman, Torgny Gustafsson, Carol Flach, Richard Mendelsohn, Paul G. Falkowski

Science  02 Jun 2017:
Vol. 356, Issue 6341, pp. 933-938
DOI: 10.1126/science.aam6371

PDF Available

[…]mineral precipitation in corals is a biologically controlled process mediated by organic molecules, rather than an abiotic one that depends only on physico-chemical conditions.

[…]biomineralization in stony corals is not simply related to physicochemical parameters such as the equilibrium saturation state of carbonate ions or the bulk pH of seawater (33).

Effects of herbivory, nutrient levels, and introduced algae on the distribution and abundance of the invasive macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii

Effects of herbivory, nutrient levels, and introduced algae on the distribution and abundance of the invasive macroalga Dictyosphaeria cavernosa in Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii

Coral Reefs (2001) 19: 343-357

DOI 10.1007/s003380000123

PDF available.

Bubble algae!  The less-fun variant in the Family.  (Valonia is not so bad.)

Don’t provide foods to your herbivores that are more desirable.   Pellet food was the “worst”….mysis were better and more herbivores ate bubble algae when that was the tank’s food.

Adaptive Ecology, Growth Strategies and the Global Bloom Expansion of Dinoflagellates

Adaptive Ecology, Growth Strategies and the Global Bloom Expansion of Dinoflagellates

Theodore J. Smayda

Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 58, pp. 281 to 294, 2002

DOI: 10.1023/A:1015861725470

First, I must say that Dr. Smayda (d.2017) was apparently “The Man” when it came to study of harmful algae blooms.  I wish I had bumped into him sooner.

Read anything you can find by him.  Read anything that cites his work.

This work is a review article….click through and read the whole thing!!

Dinoflagellates behave as annual species, bloom soloists, are ecophysiologically diverse and habitat specialists, whereas diatoms behave as peren- nial species, guild members and are habitat cosmopolites. Diatoms have a relatively uniform bloom strategy based on species-rich pools and exhibit limited habitat spe- cialization. Dinoflagellates have multiple life-form strategies consistent with their diverse habitat specializations, but rely on impoverished bloom species pools.

Diatoms and flagellates, for example, generally have similar nutrient requirements (excluding the need for silica), but diatoms, when nutrient-limited, seek to alleviate limitation through a sink-strategy, while flagellates use a swim-strategy (Smayda, 1997a).

Diatom blooms (independent of species composition) have five major features: coastal (including upwelling systems) diatom blooms are annually recurrent, predictable, prolonged, of high species diversity, and a species succession occurs (Guillard and Kilham, 1977; Smayda, 1980). Dinoflagellate blooms, in contrast, usually are unpredictable, ephemeral, of low species diversity, and exhibit a rudimentary species succession, if any.

That’s only the tip of the iceberg….click and read!!!

The toxic benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis in temperate areas: a review

The toxic benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis in temperate areas: a review

Stefano Accoroni, Cecilia Totti

Advances in Oceanography and Limnology, 2016; 7(1): 1-15

DOI: 10.4081/aiol.2016.5591

Key Points:

  • Correct ID of Ostreopsis species in the field (distinguishing between them) is “highly problematic” requiring a comparison of precise anatomical measurements and experience comparing strains from different regions.  Even genetic ID has been complicated.  They are now referring to some Ostreopsis as species-complexes and clades.
  • Either P- or N-depletion has been shown to lower Ostreopsis ovata toxicity.  (Strain, growth phase and salinity all figure it too.)
  • Turbulence affects growth rate/cell-size.
  • Cell counts were consistently lower in exposed sites vs sheltered ones.
  • Dino’s are easy to dislodge, which is why they show a preference for calm areas
  • Turbulence is most effective against them at the peak population levels when they are mat-forming.
  • While it appears there is a general preference for higher temperatures during the peak bloom (77ºF+) they tend to range widely and some strains appear to have multiple optimal ranges.
  • N:P around the Redfield ratio and temperatures of at least 77ºF seems necessary to allow cell proliferation.
  • Temperatures to stop a bloom were much lower, however – around or under 60ºF.
  • Blooms appear to be initiated under low-N/low-P conditions and then spike with a flush of nutrients.
  • It’s also suggested that Ostreopsis toxins might be intended for survival under low-N/low-P conditions while waiting for conditions to become ideal.  (Which seems to be an elevation in temperature along with a spike in nutrients.)
  • At least one strain of Ostreopsis showed a very strong demand for P in depletion tests, which was remarkable among dinoflagellates.
  • It’s suggested that Ostreopsis may share the habit known of other dinoflagellates for resorting bacterivory/mixotrophy under low-P/low-nutrient conditions.
  • Most Ostreopsis species exhibited lowered growth rates at light intensities around 250 PAR and higher….sometimes only slightly lowered, sometimes significantly.
  • Higher light levels may also be related to mucus formation (for photodamage protection) and settling from their planktonic stage.
  • However, being motile, they are also capable of migrating from brighter to shadier areas.
  • Although recorded in the wild on a variety of substrates, there are many reports that they prefer to be epiphytic on macroalgae, which as an environment is known to have low light availability.
  • Interestingly, living substrates like macroalgae support the lowest cell densities of all sampled substrates.
  • All investigated seaweed types exhibited a negative effect on Ostreopsis counts: brown, red and green algae.  The brown algae Dictyota dichotoma had the strongest effect….a red algae the weakest.