Aerosol dispersal of the fish pathogen, Amyloodinium ocellatum

Aerosol dispersal of the fish pathogen, Amyloodinium ocellatum

Aquaculture, Volume 257, Issues 1–4, 30 June 2006, Pages 118-123

Ashley Roberts-Thomson, Andrew Barnes, D. Stewart Fielder, Robert J.G. Lester, Robert D. Adlard

PDF Available

 

They performed three sets of tests to see how “suseceptible” a tank or pond could be when placed “close” to infected tanks:

  • The first set was more or less a typical indoor home aquarium setup.
  • The second set was an indoor setup, but force-aerosolized the infected water.
  • The third set was more typical of a pond system and simulated outdoor windy conditions and also force-aerosolized the infected water.

This is a table I prepared to show the organization of their trials into three sets of experiments:

velvet table.png

The goal of their experiments was to prove whether Amyloodinium can “ride” a water droplet to a foreign body of water and arrive intact enough to infect fish.

They did this successfully, and indeed Amyloodinium can “ride” water droplets.  But that might not be the most interesting part to us in the reefing community.

Here are some charts I made which depict the reported results for the three sets of experiments:

velvet charts.png

The first thing that jumps out at me – from the first chart – is that airstones running in an open tank like a stereotypical home setup are totally unable to spread dinospores.

As it turns out, dinospores are relatively big and subject to hypersalinity and dehydration while in transit.   It took a lot more than bubbles in a fish tank to achieve transmission – they need a lot of help to get anywhere successfully!

annual_descriptive_catalogue_-_seeds_28189729_282055573274129

The second and third chart demonstrate the successful conditions.

Without strong wind, dinospores were only infective out to a maximum of 17 inches from the source tank.

Forced-arosolization was implemented in these two experiments by spraying 2 liters of dinospore-infected water into the air through a hand-pumped sprayer somewhat like the one depicted to the left, fitted with a misting nozzle.

Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in Turbot

Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in turbot (Psetta maxima): 1. Growth performance, flesh fatty acid profile, and lipid metabolism
Original research article
Aquaculture, Volume 217, Issues 1–4, 17 March 2003, Pages 465-482
C Regost, J Arzel, J Robin, G Rosenlund, S.J Kaushik
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00259-4
PDF Available

Total replacement of fish oil by soybean or linseed oil with a return to fish oil in Turbot (Psetta maxima): 2. Flesh quality properties
Original research article
Aquaculture, Volume 220, Issues 1–4, 14 April 2003, Pages 737-747
C. Regost, J. Arzel, M. Cardinal, G. Rosenlund, S.J. Kaushik
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00655-5

In summary, it’s possible to replace at least some of a marine fish’s diet with high quality, specifically selected vegetable oils, but it’s not a perfect replacement in every way.

For example, growth seems unaffected, but flavor, odor and other important factors are affected.

Some, but not all, affected factors can be reformed by a “finishing diet” consisting of normal food containing fish oil.

Book: Biology of Stress In Fish – Fish Physiology (Chapter 12 – Stress Management And Welfare)

Book: Biology of Stress In Fish – Fish Physiology (Chapter 12 – Stress Management And Welfare)

Lynne U Sneddon, David C.C. Wolfenden, Jack S Thomson
Biology of Stress in Fish – Fish Physiology, pp.463-539

The Chapter 12 authors have posted their work on Research Gate here:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309613409_Stress_Management_and_Welfare

DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-802728-8.00012-6 (Science Direct)

There is not only a lack of familiarity with what constitutes stress and what side-effects stress can have, but there’s even a pretty fair amount of denial of it’s role in health and sickness.  All of that is laid fairly to rest in this book.

For example from this chapter, we can learn:

  • Short term (acute) stress – like being caught in a net – isn’t so bad for a fish.  It’s just a coping mechanism and long term consequences would not be expected.
  • Long term (chronic) stress – like three months in QT with a pack of strange fish – will have a more lasting negative impact on growth, immunity and reproduction.

In spite of how much of the book is online, they don’t allow quoting from any of it from any source I’ve found, so you can read the rest for yourself!

https://books.google.com/books?id=KcEOCAAAQBAJ&lpg=PP1&dq=biology%20of%20stress%20in%20fish&pg=PP1&output=embed

Technological improvements for the cultivation of invertebrates as food for fishes and crustaceans. II. Hatching and culturing of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina L

Technological improvements for the cultivation of invertebrates as food for fishes and crustaceans. II. Hatching and culturing of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina L

From p311-312.

Apparently, for small-batch brine shrimp culture (useful size), they used funnel-shaped vessels as small as 100mL and up to one liter.  For maximum results, they only bubbled the medium in 5 second bursts four times an hour.

Feeding corals in captivity: uptake of four Artemia- based feeds by Galaxea fascicularis

Feeding corals in captivity: uptake of four Artemia- based feeds by Galaxea fascicularis

Ronald Osinga, Fam Charko, Catarina Cruzeiro, Johan A.J. A.J. Verreth

(PDF Download Available)

This study evaluates the capture efficiency of the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis for four Artemia-based feeds: (1) live, non-enriched Artemia nauplii; (2) Instant Baby Brine Shrimp (IBBS, pasteurized Artemia nauplii); (3) live, SELCO-enriched Artemia nauplii, and (4) live Artemia nauplii enriched with SELCO that was supplemented with the antibiotics Sulfamethoxazole and Trimethoprim. All prey types were rapidly consumed by the corals (6-11 nauplii per polyp per hour), showing that (I), IBBS can be a cost-effective alternative to feeding freshly hatched nauplii, and (II), corals can be provided with specific additives via their food. The corals preferred live Artemia over IBBS, indicating that IBBS can be further optimised for use in coral reef aquaria. SELCO-enriched Artemia and medicated Artemia were also consumed at lower rates (40% and 30% lower, respectively) than non-enriched Artemia.

General interest!  This applies to us so directly it’s almost not worth commenting!

Ocean Nutrition sells instant baby brine shrimp and I have used them before.  I’m going to get more for backups in between hatches of live!

Use of Artemia as a food source for aquaculture

Use of Artemia as a food source for aquaculture

DA Bengston, Philippe Léger, Patrick Sorgeloos

Artemia Biology, January 1991

(PDF available)

This includes reviews of everything about using brine shrimp, including storing and hatching cysts and enrichment of shrimps for better health of marine fish.

Four major techniques for enriching shrimp are reviewed:

  1. Algae
  2. Algae, Yeast or oil emulsion
  3. Composed, commercial-style diet
  4. Self-emulsifying concentrates

Decapsulation is detailed:

  1. Bubble cysts at 77ºF for a couple of hours to rehydrate
  2. Move to bleach solution (125µ mesh can separate them)
  3. Bleach solution is 0.5 grams of active bleaching component per gram of cysts
  4. A buffer (pH >10) consisting of 0.67 grams of washing soda is needed.
  5. Bleaching process is exothermic – do not allow temp over 104ºF.  An ice bath for the bleaching container is recommended during decapsulation.
  6. Stir cysts in bleach solution for 5-15 minutes until color turns orange or microscopic examination shows the shell to be gone
  7. Rinse until there’s no bleach smell.  Deactivate bleach with an acid or a dechlorinator after rinsing.

Effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio manipulation in feed supplements on Artemia production and water quality in solar salt ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Effect of carbon/nitrogen ratio manipulation in feed supplements on Artemia production and water quality in solar salt ponds in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

Lulijwa Ronald, Gilbert Van Stappen, Nguyen Van Hoa, Patrick Sorgeloos

DOI: 10.1111/are.12135

Green water (GW) was supplied to all ponds, with the standard Vietnamese procedure of supplying GW and chicken manure (CM) as the control (C/N 1.8). Treatment ponds were supplemented with tapioca (TAP) as carbon source, combined with either CM, pig manure (PM) or rice bran (RB), with C/N ratios of 7.4, 10.5 or 20.1 respectively. After 6 weeks of culture, no single treatment supported both improved water quality and enhanced Artemia production. Overall, improved water quality was observed at C/N 20.1 and higher Artemia production at C/N 7.4.

This is interesting for more than just growing brine shrimp!